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General Information

Several operational problems can arise if a well produces sand. The sum of the same is extremely costly, but the severity grade can vary widely.

The least severe problems are solved by a routine removal of sand from surface facilities such as flow lines, separators and heater treaters.

The more serious consequences are related to surface equipment erosion, damages to casings and loss of productivity.

SURFACE EQUIPMENT

· Sand removal from surface equipment is a common practice in regions where sand is produced.

· Sand disposal may pose problems, especially in offshore operations.

· If sand entry occurs at high enough velocities, it may erode surface equipment such as valves and production reducers, demanding the periodic replacement of such equipment.

DAMAGE TO PIPES

Failures in casings can go together with formation sands production during the production interval, leading to the loss of the well.

Sand production can bend or warp the casings.